DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.


Study guide for quiz




  • Entire Ania’s Glossary



From Glossary in a book:

  • additive colors
  • after-image
  • analogous hues
  • atmospheric perspective
  • Bezold Effect
  • Chiaroscuro
  • Chromatic hue
  • Chrometerapy
  • CMYK
  • color wheel
  • complementary hues
  • hue
  • local color
  • monochromatic
  • neutral
  • primary colors
  • refracted color
  • RGB
  • saturation
  • secondary colors
  • split complementary
  • subtractive color mixing
  • tertiary colors
  • triadic color system, scheme
  • value




 Examples of questions:



Essay answer (everything you know):

  • What are Additive Light Colors?
  • Describe Saturation, Hue, Value and why they are important?
  • What do you know about Spatial Effects of colors?
  • What do you know about color symbolism?
  • How would you achieve emphasis in your composition using color? Please give two examples.
  • What are After-Images? Give an example.
  • What do you know about Warm and Cool Colors?
  • How would you achieve emphasis in your composition using color? Please give two examples.
  • What do you know about physiological and biological effects of color?
  • Tell me everything you know about Subtractive Media, everything you  
  • Tell me everything you know about Additive Media, everything you  
  • What CMYK stand for? Everything you know.




  • Atmospheric perspective
  • Bezold Effect
  • Optical color
  • Color Harmony
  • CMYK
  • Subtractive color mixing
  • RGB
  • Split complementary colors
  • Traidic color scheme
  • Chromateraphy



Three most important properties; attributes of color: hue, value and intensity.                                   


HUE     This is another word for color. The hue refers to a particular color such as red or blue.

The hue of an apple is red.

VALUE   Value is simply the artistic term for light and dark. Value is a gradation from light to dark.

INTENSITY      This refers to the purity of color or it is freedom from white, black, or gray. A vivid color is of high intensity; a dull color, low intensity.



SPECTRUM    The range of visible color created when white light is passed through a prism.          

PRIMARY COLORS     The three primary colors are red, yellow and blue. 

From these, all other colors can “theoretically be mixed”.

There are 3 set of primaries; look at subtractive and additive primaries.

SECONDARY COLORS           The three secondary colors are mixtures of the two primaries:

Red and yellow make orange; red and blue make violet, and so on.



COLOR HARMONY      Harmony means that there is visual unity of certain color combinations. 


MONOCHROMATIC COLORS This literally means one color usage.  Blue for example, may be used in combination with tints tones and shades.

MONOCHROMATIC HARMONY  Use of one color in combination with tints tones and shades.


ANALOGOUS COLORS           Colors next to each other on color wheel.

ANALOGOUS HARMONY        This means the use of colors that lie beside one another on color wheel. 

Usually a feeling of warmth and coolness is present in analogous harmonies.

WARM COLORS:         red, yellow, orange, yellow-green, red-violet

COOL COLORS:          blue, green, violet, blue-green, and yellow-green, red-violet.


COMPLEMENTARY COLORS   Two colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel.

They enhance, intensify each other, and neutralize each other when mixed - break each other or produce grey.  They also require each other - afterimage effect, simultaneous contrast.



Two color that lie opposite one another on the color wheel and all neutral colors resulted from mixing the two.    

We call two colors complimentary if their pigments, mixed together, yield a neutral gray-black.  They are opposite, they require each other.  They incite each other to maximum vividness; and annihilate each other, to gray -black when mixed - like fire and water.  Both the phenomenon of afterimage and the effects of simultaneity illustrate the remarkable physiological fact, as yet unexplained, that the eye requires any given color to be balanced by the complementary, and will spontaneously generate the latter if it is not present.  Each complementary pair has its own peculiarities.  Thus, yellow/violet represents not only complementary contrast but also extreme light-dark contrast.  Red-orange / blue-green are the extreme of cold-warm contrast. Red and green are complementary, and the two saturated colors have the same brilliance. Complementary Color Contrast can be recognized by noticing use of colors opposite to each other on color wheal as well us by use of complementary colors to neutralize each other.                                  



 It may strange to identify a sensation of temperature with the visual realm of color sensation.  However, experiments have demonstrated a difference of five to seven degrees in the subjective feeling of the room painted in blue-green and one painted in red-orange.  Objectively it means that blue-green slows down the circulation and red-orange stimulates it.  Of all seven color contrasts, the cold-warm contrast is the most sonorous.  A medium brilliance is the most effective.  Red-orange is the warmest, and blue-green is the coldest, and has strongest effect when used at those extremes.  Generally the colors yellow, yellow orange, orange, red-orange, red and red-violet are referred to as warm, and yellow-green, blue, blue-violet and violet as cold; but this classification can be very misleading. Cold-warm Contrasts as well as Contrast of a Hue are the only color combinations which are effective without Light - Dark Contrast.




Saturation, or quality, relates to the degree of purity of a color.  Contrast of saturation is the contrast between pure, intense colors and dull, neutralized colors.  A pure color may be diluted with white, black, and gray or by corresponding complementary color.

Main reason to use contrast of saturation is to achieve a focal point in the composition. For my most fascinating is using saturated color witch grab your attention first, second, third, fourth etc……. to achieve a sense of continuity.


HARMONIOUS DYAD  Two color that lie opposite one another on the color wheel that look good together and side by side enhance each other, creating appealing color combination.

DYAD - TWO                              called sometimes POLYCHROMATIC HARMONY

SPLIT COMPLIMENTARY         Is the color plus two neighboring colors to its complimentary

TRIADIC HARMONY                TRIAD – THREE colors symmetrical towards the middle of color wheel

TETRADIC HARMONY             TETRAD – FOUR colors symmetrical towards the middle of color wheel   

HEXADIC HARMONY               HEXAD-SIX colors symmetrical towards the middle of color wheel              



The color as seen in the objective world in ordinary daylight: green grass.


A color changed by the light of sunset, moonlight, candlelight or an atmospheric effects, such as faraway mountains appearing blue; orange grass at the sunset.


Natural color is ignored to create an emotional or visual effect: purple grass because artist feels like it.


TINT or HIGH-VALUE COLOR or HIGH-KEY COLOR   Is produced by adding white to the color.

SHADE or LOW-VALUE COLOR or LOW-KEY COLOR   Is produced by adding black to the color. 

NEUTRAL COLOR       The color which is subdued by addition of black, white, gray, or complimentary color.


Extremes in value contrast are white and black. If no color is present in the value scale it is atonal.

TONAL or CHROMATIC          

If color is present in the dark and light sequence it is tonal even when color presence is very small.

TONE   Color+ Gray















DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.